The aim of this paper is to analytically review the contemporary scientific literature in range management. To this end, we first focus on the ecology and the management of rangelands. Second, we concentrate on the economics and the management of rangelands. Third, we shed light on significant current issues in range management in countries outside the United States. Fourth, we highlight what is now often referred to as the "new range science" with its nonequilibrium view of rangelands and then we use the perspectives offered by this new science and the notion of resilience to view rangelands as both ecological–economic systems and as complex adaptive systems. Finally, we conclude our review prospectively by making four suggestions for future research in range management.