This paper uses three different approaches for measuring the tightness of competition in the global pulp and paper markets. First, we evaluate the market shares of the world's largest pulp and paper companies. Second, we estimate the price elasticities of the export demand for pulp and paper. Third, we test the Law of One Price. All three approaches suggest that the pulp and paper markets are competitive in the sense that a single firm, no matter how large, cannot increase the price of its products without losing market shares and experiencing a fall in total revenues.