Journal of Forest Economics > Vol 18 > Issue 4

Testing for hypothetical bias in willingness to support a reforestation program

Michał Krawczyk,
Suggested Citation
Michał Krawczyk (2012), "Testing for hypothetical bias in willingness to support a reforestation program", Journal of Forest Economics: Vol. 18: No. 4, pp 282-289.

Publication Date: 0/12/2012
© 0 2012 Michał Krawczyk
JEL Codes:Q23Q51Q57
Contingent valuationExperimental methodologyHypothetical biasMatchingReforestation


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This study measures hypothetical bias in CVM-based estimates of willingness to support a forest protection and restoration program in Poland. It does so in two parallel ways: within- and between-subjects. To this end, participants are asked to vote in a referendum on an NGO-led reforestation project for various per-capita cost levels. They do so either directly or, as a surprise continuation, after a hypothetical analogue. Both methods deliver a similar (and substantial) level of hypothetical bias – it is slightly higher, but not significantly so, in the between-subject comparison. This suggests that hypothetical bias in this context is not primarily driven by such factors as consistency seeking or impression management.