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A speaker verification system automatically accepts or rejects a claimed identity of a speaker based on a speech sample. Recently, a major progress was made in speaker verification which leads to mass market adoption, such as in smartphone and in online commerce for user authentication. A major concern when deploying speaker verification technology is whether a system is robust against spoofing attacks. Speaker verification studies provided us a good insight into speaker characterization, which has contributed to the progress of voice conversion technology. Unfortunately, voice conversion has become one of the most easily accessible techniques to carry out spoofing attacks; therefore, presents a threat to speaker verification systems. In this paper, we will briefly introduce the fundamentals of voice conversion and speaker verification technologies. We then give an overview of recent spoofing attack studies under different conditions with a focus on voice conversion spoofing attack. We will also discuss anti-spoofing attack measures for speaker verification.