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Trained features of a convolution neural network (CNN) at different convolution layers is analyzed using two quantitative metrics in this work. We first show mathematically that the Gaussian confusion measure (GCM) can be used to identify the discriminative ability of an individual feature. Next, we generalize this idea, introduce another measure called the cluster purity measure (CPM), and use it to analyze the discriminative ability of multiple features jointly. The discriminative ability of trained CNN features is validated by experimental results. Research on CNNs utilizing GCM and CPM tools offers important insights into its operational mechanism, including the behavior of trained CNN features and good detection performance of some object classes that were considered difficult in the past. Finally, the trained feature representation is compared between different CNN structures to explain the superiority of deeper networks.