Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory > Vol 6 > Issue 3–4

Raptor Codes

Amin Shokrollahi, EPFL, Switzerland, amin.shokrollahi@epfl.ch Michael Luby, Qualcomm, Inc., USA, luby@qualcomm.com
 
Suggested Citation
Amin Shokrollahi and Michael Luby (2011), "Raptor Codes", Foundations and Trends® in Communications and Information Theory: Vol. 6: No. 3–4, pp 213-322. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/0100000060

Published: 18 May 2011
© 2011 A. Shokrollahi and M. Luby
 
Subjects
Coding theory and practice
 

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In this article:
1 Introduction
2 Foundations
3 Standardized Raptor Codes
A Rank of Random Matrices
B Failure Probability of R10 and RQ
Acknowledgments
References

Abstract

This monograph describes the theory behind Raptor codes, and elucidates elements of the processes behind the design of two of the most prominent members of this class of codes: R10 and RaptorQ (RQ). R10 has already been adopted by a number of standards' bodies, and RQ is in the process of entering various standards at the time of writing of this monograph.

The monograph starts with the description of some of the transmission problems, which inspired the invention of Fountain codes. Thereafter, Luby transform codes (LT codes) and Raptor codes are introduced and insights are provided into their design. These codes are currently the most efficient realizations of Fountain codes. Different algorithms are introduced for encoding and decoding various versions of these codes, including their systematic versions. Moreover, a hybrid decoding algorithm called "inactivation decoding" is introduced, which is an integral part of all modern implementations of Raptor codes.

The R10 and RQ codes have been continued and will continue to be adopted into a number of standards and thus there are publicly available specifications that describe exactly how to implement these codes. However, the standards' specifications provide no insight into the rationale for the design choices made. One of the primary purposes of this document is to provide this design rationale.

We provide results of extensive simulations of R10 and RQ codes to show the behavior of these codes in many different scenarios.

DOI:10.1561/0100000060
ISBN: 978-1-60198-446-3
136 pp. $90.00
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ISBN: 978-1-60198-447-0
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Table of contents:
1: Introduction
2: Foundations
3: Standardized Raptor Codes
A: Rank of Random Matrices
B: Failure Probability of R10 and RQ
References

Raptor Codes

Written by the inventors, Raptor Codes provides a complete introduction to the theory, design and practical implementation of a class of codes that that provide a lot of practical value to a large variety of data communication applications. They find applications in all types of data transmission, including those using the TCP and UDP protocols; multipoint-to-point; point-to-multipoint and multipoint-to-multipoint. The codes are so efficient and practical that two classes of them (R10 and RaptorQ) have been adopted widely by a number of standards bodies and are used in a variety of standards. Different algorithms are introduced for encoding and decoding various versions of these codes, including their systematic versions. Moreover, a hybrid decoding algorithm called "inactivation decoding" is introduced which is an integral part of all modern implementations of Raptor codes. There are publicly available specifications that describe exactly how to implement these R10 and RQ codes. However, the standards specifications provide no insight into the rationale for the design choices made. One of the primary purposes of Raptor Codes is to provide this design rationale.

Raptor Codes is essential reading for all researchers, engineers and computer scientists designing and implementing data transmission applications. Furthermore, it provides results of extensive simulations of R10 and RQ codes to show the behavior of these codes in many different scenarios.

 
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