Foundations and Trends® in Robotics > Vol 6 > Issue 4

A Survey of Nonverbal Signaling Methods for Non-Humanoid Robots

Elizabeth Cha, University of Southern California, USA, echa@usc.edu Yunkyung Kim, NASA Ames Research Center, USA, yunkyung.kim@nasa.gov Terrence Fong, NASA Ames Research Center, USA, terry.fong@nasa.gov Maja J. Mataric, University of Southern California, USA, mataric@usc.edu
 
Suggested Citation
Elizabeth Cha, Yunkyung Kim, Terrence Fong and Maja J. Mataric (2018), "A Survey of Nonverbal Signaling Methods for Non-Humanoid Robots", Foundations and Trends® in Robotics: Vol. 6: No. 4, pp 211-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/2300000057

Published: 22 Feb 2018
© 2018 E. Cha, Y. Kim, T. Fong and M. J. Mataric
 
Subjects
Human-Robot Interaction: Interface design,  Human-Robot Interaction: Social Interaction,  Design and Evaluation: Design and interaction,  Multimodal interaction,  Perception and the user interface
 

Free Preview:

Article Help

Share

Download article
In this article:
1. Introduction
2. Background
3. Use Cases
4. Internal Robot States
5. Signal Characteristics
6. Signal Generation
7. Discussion
8. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

Abstract

The goal of this survey is to inform the design and usage of nonverbal signals for human-robot interaction. With robots being increasingly utilized for tasks that require them to not only operate in close proximity to humans but to interact with them as well, there has been great interest in the communication challenges associated with the varying degrees of interaction in these environments. The success of such interactions depends on robots’ ability to convey information about their knowledge, intent, and actions to co-located humans. In this work, we present a comprehensive review of literature related to the generation and usage of nonverbal signals that facilitate legibility of non-humanoid robot state and behavior. To motivate the need for these signaling behaviors, we survey literature in human communication and psychology and outline target use cases of non-humanoid robots. Specifically, we focus on works that provide insight into the cognitive processes that enable humans to recognize, interpret, and exploit nonverbal signals. From these use cases, we identify information that is potentially important for non-humanoid robots to signal and organize it into three categories of robot state. We then present a review of signal design techniques to illustrate how signals conveying this information can be generated and utilized. Finally, we discuss issues that must be considered during nonverbal signaling and open research areas, with a focus on informing the design and usage of generalizable nonverbal signaling behaviors for task-oriented non-humanoid robots.

DOI:10.1561/2300000057
ISBN: 978-1-68083-408-6
128 pp. $85.00
Buy book
 
ISBN: 978-1-68083-409-3
128 pp. $140.00
Buy E-book
Table of contents:
1. Introduction
2. Background
3. Use Cases
4. Internal Robot States
5. Signal Characteristics
6. Signal Generation
7. Discussion
8. Conclusion
Acknowledgements
References

A Survey of Nonverbal Signaling Methods for Non-Humanoid Robots

This monograph surveys and informs the design and usage of nonverbal signals for human-robot interaction. With robots increasingly being utilized for tasks that require them to not only operate in close proximity to humans but to interact with them as well, there has been great interest in the communication challenges associated with the varying degrees of interaction in these environments. The success of such interactions depends on robots’ ability to convey information about their knowledge, intent, and actions to co-located humans.

The monograph presents a comprehensive review of literature related to the generation and usage of nonverbal signals that facilitate legibility of non-humanoid robot state and behavior. To motivate the need for these signaling behaviors, it surveys literature in human communication and psychology and outlines target use cases of non-humanoid robots. Specifically, the focus is on works that provide insight into the cognitive processes that enable humans to recognize, interpret, and exploit nonverbal signals. From these use cases, information is identified that is potentially important for non-humanoid robots to signal and organize it into three categories of robot state. The monograph then presents a review of signal design techniques to illustrate how signals conveying this information can be generated and utilized. It concludes by discussing issues that must be considered during nonverbal signaling and open research areas, with a focus on informing the design and usage of generalizable nonverbal signaling behaviors for task-oriented non-humanoid robots.

 
ROB-057