APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing > Vol 3 > Issue 1

Discriminating multiple JPEG compressions using first digit features

Simone Milani, Informazione, e Bioingegneria (DEIB), Italy, simone.milani@polimi.it , Marco Tagliasacchi, Informazione, e Bioingegneria (DEIB), Italy, Stefano Tubaro, Informazione, e Bioingegneria (DEIB), Italy
 
Suggested Citation
Simone Milani, Marco Tagliasacchi and Stefano Tubaro (2014), "Discriminating multiple JPEG compressions using first digit features", APSIPA Transactions on Signal and Information Processing: Vol. 3: No. 1, e19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ATSIP.2014.19

Publication Date: 22 Dec 2014
© 2015 Simone Milani, Marco Tagliasacchi and Stefano Tubaro
 
Subjects
 
Keywords
Multiple JPEG compressionForgery identificationFirst digit featuresBenford's law.
 

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In this article:
I. INTRODUCTION 
II. RELATED WORKS 
III. MULTIPLE COMPRESSIONS AND COEFFICIENTS STATISTICS 
IV. THE PROPOSED DETECTION ALGORITHM 
V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 
VI. CONCLUSIONS 

Abstract

The analysis of JPEG double-compressed images is a problem largely studied by the multimedia forensics community, as it might be exploited, e.g., for tampering localization or source device identification. In many practical scenarios, like photos uploaded on blogs, on-line albums, and photo sharing web sites, images might be JPEG compressed several times. However, the identification of the number of compression stages applied to an image remains an open issue. We proposes a forensic method based on the analysis of the distribution of the first significant digits of the discrete cosine transform coefficients, which follow Benford's law in images compressed just once. Then, the detector is optimized and extended in order to identify accurately the number of compression stages applied to an image. The experimental validation considers up to four consecutive compression stages and shows that the proposed approach extends and outperforms the previously-published algorithms for double JPEG compression detection.

DOI:10.1017/ATSIP.2014.19